Thursday, December 5, 2019

Ethics For Managers Wal Marts Sustainable Marketing

Question: Describe about the Ethics For Managers for Wal Marts Sustainable Marketing. Answer: 1. In our opinion, Wal-Mart is doing enough to become more sustainable. From our research studies, we found that Wal-Mart carries out diverse, sustainable activities, with the aim of fulfilling the needs of its consumers, employees and the society at large. Wal-Mart is one of the leading American retail stores offers quality products at low prices. It also aims to provide sustainable and safe food items(Barnett, 2014).It gives priority to their consumers by providing home delivery services, taking orders online and maintaining relations with their consumers by different means. For example Wal-Mart follows the tradition of listening, by communicating with their consumers through social media sites like Instagram, Facebook etc. Wal-Mart does take action to improve the overall quality of their products considering feedbacks of their consumers and associates posted on such websites. Wal-Mart considers its employees as an asset and so it provides them diverse facilities for up surging their satisfaction level. It supports its employees to develop their skills through training and skill development. We have found from our research that in last two years, Wal-Mart have invested almost $2.7 billion to provide training and education to their employees (Dodds, ,2015). It does provide scholarships to their associates for carrying out their studies while working. It aims at securing the future of their employees and so it provides the facilities like pension funds, insurance, retirement fund, medical compensation etc. Employees at Wal-Mart are trained to use latest technologies to make their work simple and agile. It does provide financial benefits to motivate and encourage their employees by offering discounts. For example Employees at Wal-Mart offers discount cards to their employees to get 10% discounts on fresh fruits and vegetables. Above all, it maintains healthy working culture in the firm by respecting their traditional values and cultures. Wal-Mart does consider its responsibility towards the society. It has adopted zero waste policy to make the efficient use of resources and to protect the environment. For example Nowadays Wal-Mart has started charging for one time use poly bags to encourage their consumers to make use of reusable bags. Studies showed that Wal-Mart was able to reduce poly bags waste up to 38% by the end of 2013. Wal-Mart follows three Rs of sustainability, i.e. Recycle, Repurpose, Reuse and Rethink, which helps in fulfilling its responsibility towards the environment. In addition to it, it does invest in diverse social welfare activities (Ghemawat. Mark, 2006). 2. Wal-Marts have to suffer due to several unethical activities such as encouraging child labor, avoiding pregnant women, poor working conditions, lower wages, etc. Wal-Marts creditability was affected by indulging in above unethical activities. About fifty percent of Wal-Mart products are produced in foreign countries to cutoff the costs of its products. It does encourage child labor in underdeveloped countries like Bangladesh for reducing its wage expenses. Apart from it, the company provides poor working conditions to their employees in underdeveloped countries. For example, in 2012 almost 111 people were killed in Wal-Mart factory due to fire, which have affected the credibility of the firm to a great extent. It was also found that it offers the monthly wage of just $37 to its employees in Bangladesh (Jensen, 2000). In Wal-Mart, gender discrimination is found among employees. And so lower wages are paid to women employees and pregnant women are fired for no reason. Many lawsuits have been filed by the women employees of Wal-Mart, but conditions havent changed yet. Research shows that 57% of its workforce are women, but still women are forced to work at lower wages. It also forces its employees to work during meal breaks, which is quite unethical. In addition to it, in 2012 the company has cut down health insurance for their part time workers. These types of activities have discouraged many women employees and reduced their work satisfaction level. In our research, we found that Wal-Mart have failed to fulfil its responsibility towards its employees working in Bangladesh. It havent even compensated to the relatives of the people killed due to fire in Tazreen factory of Bangladesh. Instead of compensating, Wal-Mart announced that Tazreen as an unauthorized brand of the company and they are not responsible for compensation. While researching, we also found that the Wal-Mart hasnt taken any action to improve the womens position in the company. Womens are still forced to work at lower wages and poor working conditions. Gender discrimination is also considered during promotions. The Company is forced to change its policy for pregnant women position by the Government due to lawsuits filed by its pregnant employees. Though the company have made several efforts to improve the working conditions of its employees, but it is not able to up surge the satisfaction level among employees. So we can Wal-Mart doesnt value the precious assets of the company i.e employees. 3. Wal-Mart does follow CSR model to fulfil diverse responsibility of the society. Basically the CSR model divided corporate social responsibility into four parts. They are Philanthropic responsibilities, Economic responsibilities, ethical responsibilities and legal responsibilities. Philanthropic responsibilities are the humanitarian responsibilities of the companies towards its community. Wal-Mart has been generously investing time and money for the welfare of the local communities for many years (Kampf, 2007) It had contributed 11 non-profit organizations by donating certain percentage of its profits. It is also providing scholarships to students for availing higher education in U S. Wal-Mart is able to fulfil its economic responsibilities by providing high quality products at low prices to its consumers. Ethics are basically concerned with what is right and wrong. And so we can say they are basically the principles of the company, which need to be fulfilled. In case of Wal-Mart, it has failed to fulfil its ethical responsibilities because numerous unethical activities such are child labor, gender discrimination, wage theft etc. are carried out by the company. It has affected the credibility of the firm to a large extent. So it becomes essential for the firm to restrict such unethical activities in the firm by taking several actions. Wal-Mart does comply with the legal restrictions imposed by the local government and there by fulfil its legal responsibilities. From diverse researches, we found that Wal-Mart is ignoring its social responsibilities towards several communities. For example, Wal-Mart sells its products at low costs compare to small merchants. Because of it, these merchants are also forced to sell their products either at lower profit or no profits. So it is essential for the firm, to revise its pricing policies for fulfilling its responsibilities towards such communities. Apart from it, traffic congestion is quite common near Wal-Mart stores. So it is essential for the firm to take actions to reduce traffic problems near its stores. This can be done by appointing man force for managing the traffic near the stores. Wal-Mart has some responsibilities towards the environment and so it should make efforts to reduce pollution in the environment. Through research, we have found that nowadays Wal-Mart have adopted no waste policy and have encouraged their consumer to re-use the poly bags and bottle by charging extra. This is an appre ciable effort by Wal-Mart. 4. Mitchell et als (1997) have discussed the three key variables or attributes of stakeholders. They are power, legitimacy and urgency. Power designates the extent to which stakeholder can influence the decisions of the firm. Usually power of any company can be obtained by materialistic or normative means. Legitimacy indicates the firms relations with the stakeholders. It indicates that the actions of the entity are appropriate according to the standards, principles or norms followed by the firm. Urgency is referred as the tenacity. It indicates the degree to which stakeholder claims are required immediate actions. It depends upon the time factor and stakeholder relationships with the company. By considering the above three variable such as power, legitimacy and urgency, it is possible for firms to identify which stakeholders that should be given more importance. Basically, Wal-Mart does make use of the above variables to identify different types of stakeholders of the firm. There are seven different types of stakeholders, they are Dormant stakeholders, Dominant stakeholders, Demanding stakeholders, Dangerous stakeholders, Discretionary stakeholders, Definitive stakeholders and dependent stakeholders. After analysing different types of stakeholders, stakeholders are further analysed into a latent, expectant and high categories on the basis of priorities. Latent stakeholders are given least importance in the management of the firm. Expectant stakeholders are given moderate priority by the management of the firm. Lastly, high stakeholders are given the highest priorities by the firm (The World Bank,2015). Diverse decisions of Wal-Mart is influenced by its stakeholders. Diverse Stakeholders of Wal-Mart are investors, suppliers, consumers and employers. Among them investors of the company is given the highest priority by the management of Wal-Mart. The main reason behind it is that without investors, it is impossible for the firm to carry out its business. They are interested in maximizing profits and so Wal-Mart make efforts to up surge the overall revenues of the firm. Consumers and employees are considered as the expectant stakeholders of the firm. Consumer needs of Wal-Mart is usually satisfied by providing high quality products and services at low prices. In case of employees, satisfaction level among the employees is increased through motivation, encouragement, promotions, etc. Apart from it, employees work efficiency is increased by giving proper training. Above all, it provides job security to encourage their employees. 5. It is quite essential for the company like Wal-Mart to be ethical in its communication and practice. Ethics are basically the principle or norms formed by the firm to carry out its business activities in an ethical manner. Firms usually provide training to their employees to maintain an ethical behavior in an organization. In case of Wal-Mart, it has been in involved in numerous unethical activities such as child labor, gender discrimination, wage theft. In addition to it, it discourages its employees by forcing them to work in poor working conditions. Even age group discrimination is also found in Wal-Mart. Many employees of Wal-Mart has sent lawsuits to the company for such unethical activities. It is also criticized by the media for its unethical activities. Even today, the company is male-dominant and promotions are considering gender and age group discrimination. It doesnt ensure the safety of its employees. For example, in case of fire accidents in Bangladesh, instead of hel ping and compensating the relatives of dead employees, firm had back out from its responsibilities by announcing it as unauthorized brand. It was found that about 111 people were killed in that incident due to the negligence of the firm. Above all, Wal-Mart has also failed to fulfil its responsibilities towards small communities. It is essential for Wal-Mart to grow as an ethical company in future by fulfilling its responsibilities towards the consumers, employees and the society at large. It should make efforts to restrict child labor at its developing countries units. It should also try to up surge the satisfaction level among employees by providing proper training and providing better working conditions. Apart from it, it should try to reduce corruption, gender and age discrimination in the company. It should also take some actions to empower womens position in their company. It should try to maintain equality in the firm. It should also try to fulfil its responsibility towards the society by providing scholarships and donations to the non-profit organizations. It can also maintain health relations with its stakeholders through social media and mobile applications like whtsapp, snapchat etc. Consumers should be a priority for Wal-Mart and so firm should check the quality of its products before selling it. It should also revise its pricing policies for benefitting small communities. Last but not the least, firm should also make effort to increase the security of its employees ( Lazonick, William Sullivan Lazonick,2010). References Corporate.walmart.com. (2016). Walmart Corporate - We save people money so they can live better.. [online] Available at: https://corporate.walmart.com/ [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016]. Barnett, M. L. (2014). Why stakeholders ignore firm misconduct a cognitive view.Journal of Management,40(3), 676-702. Dodds, F. (2015).Multi-stakeholder partnerships: Making them work for the Post-2015 Development Agenda. United Nations. Ghemawat, P., Mark, K. A. (2006).The Real Wal-Mart Effect. Harvard Business School. Jensen, M. C. (2000).Value Maximization and Stakeholder Theory. Harvard Business School. Kampf, C. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: WalMart, Maersk and the cultural bounds of representation in corporate web sites.Corporate Communications: An International Journal,12(1), 41-57. Masouros, Pavlos E., "Corporate Law and Economic Stagnation: How Shareholder Value and Short-termism Contribute to the Decline of the Western Economies" Eleven International Publishing. pp. 6-9 The World Bank (2015).What is Stakeholder Analysis? U.S. Department of Commerce (2015).The Retail Services Industry in the United States. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (2014).Walmart CEO Outlines Growth Strategy at Annual Meeting for the Investment Community. Lazonick, William; Mary O'Sullivan (2010). "Maximizing shareholder value: a new ideology for corporate governance".Economy and Society.29(1): 1335. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (2015).Walmart Form 10-K, 2015. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (2015).Walmart Human Resources. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (2015).Walmarts Official E-commerce Website.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Numeral System Essay Example

Numeral System Essay A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the symbols 11 to be interpreted as the binary symbol for three, the decimal symbol for eleven, or a symbol for other numbers in different bases. Ideally, a numeral system will: * Represent a useful set of numbers (e. g. ll integers, or rational numbers) * Give every number represented a unique representation (or at least a standard representation) * Reflect the algebraic and arithmetic structure of the numbers. b numeral system base dn the n-th digit n can start from negative number if the number has a fraction part. N+1 the number of digits Base (Radix):- The total number of distinct symbols used by a number system called base or radix. E. g. : Decimal number system uses ten distinct symbols: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Decimal numb er system:-The decimal numeral system (also called base ten or occasionally denary) has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations. [1][2] Decimal notation often refers to a base-10 positional notation such as the Hindu-Arabic numeral system Decimal number system uses ten distinct symbols: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Binary number system:- In mathematics and computer science, the binary numeral system, or base-2 numeral system, represents numeric values using two symbols: 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2.Numbers represented in this system are commonly called binary numbers. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers and computer-based devices such as mobile phones. E. g. 101012 = 10101B = 1? 24+0? 23+1? 22+0? 21+1? 20 = 16+4+1= 21 101112 = 10111B = 1? 24+0? 23+1? 22+1? 21+1? 20 = 16+4+2+1= 23 1000112 = 100011B = 1? 25+0? 24+0? 23+0? 22+1? 21+1? 20 =32+2+1= 35 Octal number system: The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.Octal numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right). For example, the binary representation for decimal 74 is 1001010, which can be grouped into (00)1 001 010 – so the octal representation is 112. In the decimal system each decimal place is a power of ten. For example: In the octal system each place is a power of eight. For example: By performing the calculation above in the familiar decimal system we see why 112 in octal is equal to 64+8+2 = 74 in decimal. E. g. 278 = 2? 1+7? 80 = 16+7 = 23 308 = 3? 81+0? 80 = 24 43078 = 4? 83+3? 82+0? 81+7? 80 = 2247 Hexadecimal Number System: In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, and A,? B,? C,? D,? E,? F (or alternatively a–f) to represent values ten to fifteen. For example, the hexadecimal number 2AF3 is equal, in decimal, to (2 163) + (10 162) + (15 161) + (3 160), or 10995.Each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits), and the primary use of hexadecimal notation is a human-friendly representation of binary-coded values in computing and digital electronics. One hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte (8  bits). For example, byte values can range from 0 to 255 (decimal), but may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the range 00 to FF. Hexadecimal is also commonly used to represent computer memory addresses. Examples: 2816 = 28H = 2? 161+8? 160 = 40 2F16 = 2FH = 2? 161+15? 60 = 47 BC1216 = BC12H = 11? 163+12? 162+1? 161+2? 160 = 48146 Numeral Systems Conv ersion Table Decimal Base-10| BinaryBase-2| OctalBase-8| HexadecimalBase-16| 0| 0| 0| 0| 1| 1| 1| 1| 2| 10| 2| 2| 3| 11| 3| 3| 4| 100| 4| 4| 5| 101| 5| 5| 6| 110| 6| 6| 7| 111| 7| 7| 8| 1000| 10| 8| 9| 1001| 11| 9| 10| 1010| 12| A| | ASCII Code: Ascii stands for American standard code for information interchange. This code uses 7 bits to represent any character. These 7 bits lead to128 codes. There are two types of character coded by ACII printable and nonprintable control characters.The printable character include digits from 0 to 9, The upper case and lowercase English letters from A to Z, mathematical operation +,-,*, etc punctuation marks and various special symbols like $, @, #, etc. Non-printable characters are those which do not provide and display on the screen. These codes are used to provide any control information to the computer system. For example end of line, end of pages, start of text, end of text, carriage return etc are nonprintable control character coded by the ASCII code.These codes are extensively used by printers, terminals and keyboard 7 bit code enters inside the computer circuit. E. g. HI FI This string has five characters: H, I, SPACE, F and I Therefore 5*7=35 bits will needed in computer to represent this character string. GRAY CODES: Gray code is used in shaft encoder which indicates the angular position of shaft in digital form. Binary bits are arranged in such a way that only one binary bit changes at a time when we make a change from any number to the next. Its use reduced the error in the reading shaft position.The largest possible error will be one least significant digit. Suppose that the shaft changes it position from 7 to 8, the gray code will change from 0100 to 1100. If change in the binary bit is not picked up by the sensor, the encoder will show the previous position that is 7. But in case of standard binary code 7 is represented by 0111 and by 1000. If sensor picks up the least significant bits that is 000, but fails to pick up the most significant bit 1, the output will be 0000 instead of 1000 . there will be large error if standard binary code is used for shaft encoding.In this case an error of the most significant bit may occur . the Gray code is often used in computer controlled machines such as lathes etc. Addition The circuit diagram for a binary half adder, which adds two bits together, producing sum and carry bits. The simplest arithmetic operation in binary is addition. Adding two single-digit binary numbers is relatively simple, using a form of carrying: 0 + 0 0 0 + 1 1 1 + 0 1 1 + 1 0, carry 1 (since 1 + 1 = 0 + 1 ? binary 10) Adding two 1 digits produces a digit 0, while 1 will have to be added to the next column.This is similar to what happens in decimal when certain single-digit numbers are added together; if the result equals or exceeds the value of the radix (10), the digit to the left is incremented: 5 + 5 0, carry 1 (since 5 + 5 = 10 carry 1) 7 + 9 6, carry 1 (since 7 + 9 = 16 carry 1) This is known as carrying. When the result of an addition exceeds the value of a digit, the procedure is to carry the excess amount divided by the radix (that is, 10/10) to the left, adding it to the next positional value. This is correct since the next position has a weight that is higher by a factor equal to the radix.Carrying works the same way in binary: 1 1 1 1 1 (carried digits) 0 1 1 0 1 + 1 0 1 1 1 - = 1 0 0 1 0 0 = 36 In this example, two numerals are being added together: 011012 (1310) and 101112 (2310). The top row shows the carry bits used. Starting in the rightmost column, 1 + 1 = 102. The 1 is carried to the left, and the 0 is written at the bottom of the rightmost column. The second column from the right is added: 1 + 0 + 1 = 102 again; the 1 is carried, and 0 is written at the bottom. The third column: 1 + 1 + 1 = 112. This time, a 1 is carried, and a 1 is written in the bottom row.Proceeding like this gives the final answer 1001002 (36 decimal). When computers must add two numbers, the rule that: x xor y = (x + y) mod 2 for any two bits x and y allows for very fast calculation, as well. A simplification for many binary addition problems is the Long Carry Method or Brookhouse Method of Binary Addition. This method is generally useful in any binary addition where one of the numbers has a long string of â€Å"1† digits. For example the following large binary numbers can be added in two simple steps without multiple carries from one place to the next. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (carried digits) (Long Carry Method) 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 + 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Versus: + 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 add crossed out digits first + 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 = sum of crossed out digits = 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 now add remaining digits 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 In this example, two numerals are being added together: 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 02 (95810) and 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 12 (69110). The top row shows the carry bits used.Instead of the standard carry from one column to the next, the lowest place-valued 1 with a 1 in the corresponding place value beneath it may be added and a 1 may be carried to one digit past the end of the series. These numbers must be crossed off since they are already added. Then simply add that result to the uncanceled digits in the second row. Proceeding like this gives the final answer 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 12 (164910). Addition table | 0| 1| 0| 0| 1| 1| 1| 10| The binary addition table is similar, but not the same, as the Truth table of the Logical disjunction operation .The difference is that , while . Subtraction Subtraction works in much the same way: 0 ? 0 0 0 ? 1 1, borrow 1 1 ? 0 1 1 ? 1 0 Subtracting a 1 digit from a 0 digit produces the digit 1, while 1 will have to be subtracted from the next column. This is known as borrowing. The principle is the same as for carrying. When the result of a subtraction is less than 0, the least possible value of a digit, the procedure is to borrow the deficit divided by the radix (that is, 10/10) from the left, subtracting it from the next positional value. * * * (starred columns are borrowed from) 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 ? 1 0 1 1 1 - = 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 Subtracting a positive number is equivalent to adding a negative number of equal absolute value; computers typically use twos complement notation to represent negative values. This notation eliminates the need for a separate subtract operation. Using twos complement notation subtraction can be summarized by the following formula: A ? B = A + not B + 1 For further details, see twos complement. MultiplicationMultiplication in binary is similar to its decimal counterpart. Two numbers A and B can be multiplied by partial products: for each digit in B, the product of that digit in A is calculated and written on a new line, shifted leftward so that its rightmost digit lines up with the digit in B that was used. The sum of all these partial products gives the final result. Since there are only two digits in binary, there are only two possible outcomes of each partial multiplication: * If the digit in B is 0, the partial product is also 0 If the digit in B is 1, the partial product is equal to A For example, the binary numbers 1011 and 1010 are multiplied as follows: 1 0 1 1 (A) ? 1 0 1 0 (B) 0 0 0 0 + 1 0 1 1 + 0 0 0 0 + 1 0 1 1 = 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 Binary numbers can also be multiplied with bits after a binary point: 1 0 1. 1 0 1 (A) (5. 625 in decimal) ? 1 1 0. 0 1 (B) (6. 25 in decimal) - 1. 0 1 1 0 1 + 1 0 1 1. 0 1 + 1 0 1 1 0. 1 = 1 0 0 0 1 1. 0 0 1 0 1 (35. 15625 in decimal)See also Booths multiplication algorithm. Multiplication table | 0| 1| 0| 0| 0| 1| 0| 1| The binary multiplication table is the same as the Truth table of the Logical conjunction operation . Division See also: Division algorithm Binary division is again similar to its decimal counterpart: Here, the divisor is 1012, or 5 decimal, while the dividend is 110112, or 27 decimal. The procedure is the same as that of d ecimal long division; here, the divisor 1012 goes into the first three digits 1102 of the dividend one time, so a 1 is written on the top line.This result is multiplied by the divisor, and subtracted from the first three digits of the dividend; the next digit (a 1) is included to obtain a new three-digit sequence: 1 ___________ 1 0 1 ) 1 1 0 1 1 ? 1 0 1 0 1 1 The procedure is then repeated with the new sequence, continuing until the digits in the dividend have been exhausted: 1 0 1 ___________ 1 0 1 ) 1 1 0 1 1 ? 1 0 1 0 1 1 ? 0 0 0 1 1 1 ? 1 0 1 1 0 Thus, the quotient of 110112 divided by 1012 is 1012, as shown on the top line, while the remainder, shown on the bottom line, is 102. In decimal, 27 divided by 5 is 5, with a remainder of 2.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Speech to Inform Essays

Speech to Inform Essays Speech to Inform Essay Speech to Inform Essay Essay Topic: A Dolls House A Woman Killed With Kindness Catching Fire Fight Club Novel The Book Of the City Of Ladies The Joy Luck Club Speech To Inform Speech to inform:Euro-2012 In April 2007, Ukraine and Poland were named co-hosts for Euro 2012 tournament. This joint bid, taking into account Ukraines tough economic condition and administration problems, has become a headache for UEFA President Michel Platini. The matches will be staged at eight venues, divided between the co-host countries. Ukraine is behind the schedule, having problems with modernization of airports, roads, and rail networks. As a co-host country, Poland seems to be doing better than Ukraine. Yet, it also has lots of problems. Platini made it clear that without modern stadiums in capital cities, Warsaw and Kiev, neither Poland nor Ukraine would host Euro-2012. Platini persuades Europe that football will develop in the East to an unimagined level after Euro-2012. It is true that football is very popular in Poland and in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Football teams have rich sponsors and good training centers. Their football stars for leading football clubs, like Andrei Shevchenko, a world-class star of the Ukrainian origin. Warsaws preparation for Euro-2012 is in full swing. The National Stadium in Warsaw is being constructed. Although the winter was not favorable for construction, much had been done to construct the stadiums diaphragm. The UEFA delegation visited Vrozlaw to assess the capacities of its airport and hotel accommodation. The new air terminals capacity will be seven million passengers yearly. A Polish-Greek consortium will build a stadium in Vroclaw with a stand for 42000 spectators. The Olympic stadium in Kiev is being reconstructed as well. Ukraine started to build a stadium in Lwow. Ukrainian authorities promise to finish the construction on time. The final list of city-hosts will have been prepared by the middle of May 2009. Each country hopes to host at least four venues. For example, besides Ukraines capital Kiev it may be Donetsk whose construction sites are sponsored by local oligarchs, owners of the local sports club Shakhtar. It may be Lwow that borders on Poland and has historical places under UNESCO protection. Poland and Ukraine were a surprise choice for Euro-2012, and Ukraine, in particular, still is. Football fans expect a lot from Euro-2012. There may be inconveniences, like unsatisfactory infrastructure in Ukraine. Poland could organize Euro-2012 alone. Ukraine as a co-host is a political decision that is more symbolic than pragmatic. Speech to Inform:Terorrism The anti-terrorist movement after 9/11 disaster. It has taken a burdensome mission to lead the global anti-terrorist movement, with the enemy invisible, hidden, and unpredictable. This mission gave birth to many mistakes and distorted the idea of a noble peacemaking mission. Civilian populations in Iraque and Afghanistan got involved; no progress was made against terrorism as the evil of the 21st century. Notorious violations of civil and human rights in Iraque ended in many protests, especially in the Muslim world. Terrorism is the plaque of the 21st century. Global mass media terrorize populations with the reports of shocking terrorist attacks. But the roots of terrorism remain untouched. Yet, terrorism may be viewed from the three perspectives. Terrorists defend their civil and human rights, they fight against injustice and discrimination. This is their story that must be heard. Victims suffer physically and psychologically from terrorist activities. They experience pressure, instability, danger, and unsafety. For them, terrorists are criminals that deliberately take away human lives. The public opinion depends on the attitude to either terrorists or victims. In the Muslim world terrorists may be treated as victims. In the rest of the world terrorists are considered to be criminals whose acts of severe violence must be punished. Terrorism is an asymmetric form of conflict because it always divides all the participants involved. It is a strategy and tactic, a duty and a crime, a reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. Terrorism attracts public attention by committing severe acts of violence in public places and endangering lives of lots of people. It is savage-like and inhuman, for it values neither the life of a freedom fighter nor the life of a victim who is killed or badly injured only because he or she happened to be in the target place. Terrorists kill to obtain public exposure. The United States has defined the anti-terrorist priority measures. They include chemical plant security, transit security, terrorism risk insurance, disaster response, nuclear waste, and drinking water safety. It is hard to curb terrorism for several reasons. First, terrorists are well organized and have a strong network which is tied by fanatic faith in their cause. Second, terrorists are unseen. They are scattered all over the world, arranging terrorist attacks in unpredictable places. Third, terrorists are outrageous and resolute, fearless and stubborn to give their lives for their cause. Fourth, terrorists have support of the civilians who are on their side. Terrorism is our nightmare, unseen danger that may cost us our life. Terrorism is a criminal act, since no fight for justice can be justified by murders of innocent people. Without extricating the roots of terrorism, our governments will never achieve positive results. Terrorism is a response to oppression, poverty, and discrimination. When human rights are universally respected, terrorism will not have a justifiable soil under its feet. Cultivate love, not hate in your heart. Try to understand what drives terrorists. Remember, terrorism is like a love triangle: it is different form a terrorists, victims or public opinions perspectives. Speech To Actuate efinition – A speech intended to make an audience perform an action as desied by the speaker. The typical example, the characteristics of contents, development and manner of delivery would depend upon whether the action is to secure through either emotional arousal (Speech to Stimulate) or intellectual agreement (Speech to Convince). Common Errors Antaginizing your audience by dictating to or brow-beating them. Lead; don’t push! Begging ! Don’t give the impression that you have nothing to offer. Threating! This brings only resentment. Taking the negative approach by describing in unfluttering or caustic terms fail to do as you ask. Talking so far past the point of â€Å"closing the deal† that acceptance, or antagonism. Speech To Persuade HACC, Lancaster Campus Speech 101, Mr. Fernandes THE SPEECH TO PERSUADE (An Example) Note: The data presented in this sample speech is fictitious and is intended only as a backdrop for this illustration. Also, this example illustrates a mid point between the initial narrative form and the final note card form of the speech. This entire speech should be reduced to three or four 5 X 8 note cards for an extemporaneous presentation. Remember, the less narrative data on the note cards, the less temptation to read. Introduction 1. Attention: I wonder how many of us came to class tonighta wondering whether or not we would make it home safely? Most of us are not usually preoccupied with these type thoughts. But did you know that during the past 14 months 27 people have been seriously injured and 4 have been killed within one block of where you are sitting right now? 2. Personal Introduction: Good Evening, Im Jerry Fernandes 3. Motivational Statement: and tonight, Im going to provide you with some information that can literally save your life. In doing this Ill talk about 4. Overview: The nature of a serious problem that we are facing And then, Ill cover What has been done by city officials and law enforcement so far to resolve this problem And finally, Ill discuss What we can do now to protect ourselves from the threat this problem poses Body I. The problem that we are facing is the deadly intersection of H Street and Laurel Avenue. This intersection is dangerous to us all because it has no stop light. According to a summary of Lompoc City Police reports filed within the last 14 months, there have been 19 collisions at the corner of H Street and Laurel Avenue. Of these, 19 collisions, 11 were attributed to the failure of East/West Laurel Avenue traffic to stop at H Street. The remaining 8 accidents were attributed to motorist traveling North an d South on H Street, striking cars in the rear that had just turned on to H street from Laurel Avenue. An analysis of Lompoc traffic accidents was prepared by Mr. J. T. Brown of the California Department of Motor Vehicles Mishap Investigation Division, and published February 22nd,1996. In this analysis, the underlying cause of these specific 19 traffic accidents was listed as the lack of adequate traffic control at the intersection of H Street and Laurel Avenue. The analysis further went on to site the installation of a traffic signal as the recommended solution. I have copies of both the Summary of Lompoc City Police reports and Mr. Browns analysis If you would care to review them for yourself later. Well, now that weve examined the nature of the threat we are facing lets take a look at what has been done so far to defend against this threat. II. Debate by city officials and increased patrols by law enforcement have not solved the problem. The Lompoc City Council has debated installing a traffic signal. During the last two City Council meetings held in January and February of this year, the council acknowledged the need for a traffic signal but concluded that the cost of $127,000. 00 would take away from funds needed for other city projects. Police increased patrol of this dangerous area from October to December of 1996. 6 of the 19 accidents occurred during this three month period. Police can not be permanently assigned to observe one intersection. Manning just wont permit that. - According to Patrolman Danny Glover, a Lompoc City Policeman who was involved in the additional patrol of the H Street and Laurel Avenue intersection area (and I quote) While Police were present an d visible, people were normally more careful, but when no police were present it was business as usual. So weve taken a look at what has been done so far, now lets look at what we can do to further protect ourselves. III. In order to protect ourselves and those we love, we can drive defensively, but most importantly, we must demand a traffic light be installed without further delay. Driving defensively is always a good idea. Just being aware of a dangerous situation will naturally make us more alert. The more attentive we are anywhere, but particularly at this dangerous intersection, the more apt we are to avoid an accident. ut driving defensively is just not enough We must have that traffic signal and we must have it NOW!!! When we get this traffic signal installed we will all be safer. Tragedies will be prevented. The city council must hear our voices. Remember, 27 people have already been seriously injured and 4 have died at this intersection. $127,000. 00 may be a lot of mon ey but can we afford not to spend it on a traffic signal for the intersection of Laurel Avenue and H Street? How long will it be before you and I are one of those accident victims? How often do you use this Intersection? Will you use this intersection tonight when you leave class? We cant wait any longer !!!!! If we do not act now and demand the installation of this traffic signal then we will be contributing to the injuries and deaths and pain to surviving families because of our lack of action. We must act now!! The next City Council meeting will be held April 12th, next Thursday at 7:00 p. m.. The agenda includes comments and a call to vote on this traffic signal issue. The more of us who attend that council meeting and support immediate installation of a traffic signal, the better the chance we will have of getting it . Ladies and Gentlemen, attend that meeting with me and with me, demand this traffic signal be installed immediately!!! Conclusion 1. Summary: Well, tonight we Took a look at the nature of a serious problem we are all facing. The Intersection of Laurel Avenue and H Street is a disaster waiting to happen to you and me and those we love. Remember the two separate documents which point to the lack of a traffic signal at this dangerous intersection as a prime contributing factor in the accidents which occurred there. Remember the 27 injured and 4 who were killed there, not one block from where we are right now. then We discussed what has been done so far by both city officials and law enforcement to deal with this problem. We saw that the City Council has been debating installing a traffic signal. We saw that the Police Department tried increased patrol of the area. But remember the words of Patrolman Glover, when he said that as soon as police were not immediately present it was business as usual. and finally We looked at what we can do to further protect ourselves from the threat posed by the serious problem of no traffic signal at the corner of H Street and Laurel Avenue. Remember, driving defensively is always a good idea. But most importantly, we saw that the immediate installation of a traffic signal is o ur best defense against this threat and we need to let our City Council know that we cant wait any longer. . Purpose Statement: So, ladies and gentlemen, now you have the information that can literally save your life. And so the time for action is here. I urge you to go to the City Council meeting with me next Thursday at 7:00 p. m. and demand a traffic signal be installed at the intersection of Laurel Avenue and H Street immediately!!! 3. Closure: If you need a ride to the meeting or if you have any questions, see me after class. Ill be happy to talk with you. Speech To Persuade Topic: Please Help Keep the World Safe SP: I want to actuate you to support banning guns Thesis: We should oppose gun ownership because guns are a weapon of violence and they increase the number of children who die each year which in turn makes people blind to the fact they are killing their own children. Introduction: Question: How many of you think guns are necessary to protect yourself? Would you feel the same way if you knew how often guns kill children? I dont think so! Magazines usually tell people how beautiful and powerful guns are, and never mention how many children get hurt by guns everyday. But I am here to ask all of you to oppose gun ownership because the fact is that guns are a weapon of violence, they take more lives away every year, and they make people blind to the fact they are killing their own children. I. Reason one: Having guns around the house creates the opportunity for lethal violence. A. People with guns who have unstable feelings or tempers can lead to violent consequences very easily. 1. My experience in a Chinese restaurant. (Explain) 2. A friend of my father shot his wife because of a simple argument. II. Reason two: Guns pose such a significant risk to children. A. Thousands of children dying by the gunfire each year. 1. Statistic: Eight children every day; and more than 50 children every week were killed by the gunfire. And every year, at least 4 to 5 times as many kids and teens suffer from non-fatal firearm injuries. (Childrens Defense Fund and National Center for Health Statistics) 2. Do we really need guns in our society? B. The rate of firearm deaths of children 0-14 years old is nearly twelve times higher in the U. S. than in 25 other developed nations combined. 1. Statistic: In one year, firearms killed no children in Japan, 19 in Great Britain, 57 in Germany, 109 in France, 153 in Canada, and 5,285 in the United States. (National Center for Health Statistics, 1997) 2. According to a study led by Matthew Miller found that in states where more guns are available, children are more likely to be victims of firearm- related deaths. . Children aged 5 to 14 living in one of the five high-gun states were twice as likely to commit suicide or to be murdered, three times as likely to die from firearm homicide, seven times as likely to die from firearm suicide, and 16 times as likely to die from a firearm-related accident. The study suggests the higher death rates are largely related to gun availability and are not due to difference in levels of poverty, education, or urbanization in these states. (Humphries as cited in Miller study, p. 1) b. People kill people with the use of guns III. Reason three: Guns create more family tragedies. A. Life can be taken very easily by improper use of firearms 1. Quote: Kalie was my baby sister, she loved pink. We were playing with her dolls. I found a gun in the drawer. It went off. I made Kalie go away. I hate me. (Atwan, America Now, 2003. Page 260) B. People might think that they can keep their weapons properly, but if there are no guns at all, there would be no chance of any gun-related accidents. C. Just think of Columbine High School and the senseless shootings there and all the families impacted by that tragedy. Conclusion: Bullets cannot be taken back, and the profit of firearm businesses cannot buy the lives that have been taken by firearms; therefore, we need to oppose gun ownership. I challenge you, the audience, to oppose gun ownership and save a life! Speech To Entertain Speaking to the Young Peoples Society in Greepoint, Brooklyn, in 1901, Mark Twain advised, â€Å"Always do right. This will gratify some people and astonish the rest. † Writers Block Speeches that entertain can have a more profound effect on your life than speeches that inform or persuade. Thats because entertaining speeches are delivered at social occasions that give you the opportunity to ingratiate yourself with your audience. This often results in promotions, new employment opportunities, business contacts, and other goodies. For centuries, speakers have been called upon to â€Å"say a few words† at various social events. These include club meetings, dinners, parties, graduations, holidays, weddings, and ribbon cuttings- all our social functions. Sometimes these speeches help create greater unity within an organization. Other times, they honor individuals or fulfill part of a social ritual or special ceremony. What makes these speeches different from the other forms Ive described so far is their purpose: They dont inform or persuade. Instead, they entertain. Heres how to write speeches that weave the social fabric a bit tighter. Crowd Pleaser When it comes to speeches that entertain, if you cant be brief, at least be memorable. Write a speech thats easy to remember and tantalizing for the press to quote. For example, Winston Churchill was once asked to give the commencement address at Oxford University. Following his introduction, he walked to the podium, said â€Å"Never, never give up,† and took his seat. When you write a speech that entertains, always start by assessing your audience. You know that audience analysis is a crucial component in every writing situation, but its especially vital when youre writing an entertaining speech because here, your listeners are gathered to have a good time. They dont have to stay to gather information or to listen to your viewpoint (so they can later rebut it). As a result, always start by thinking how you can make sure the audience gets what they came for. Consider their likes and dislikes and their level of sophistication. Author! Author! President Woodrow Wilsons Declaration of War Against Germany speech (1917) contains the famous line: â€Å"The world must be made safe for democracy. † The speech is also remarkable for Wilsons insistence that â€Å"we have no quarrel with the German people †¦ We fight without rancor and without selfish object. † Such self-restraint and Wilsons promise that victory would result in â€Å"a universal dominion of right† helped win liberal support for the war effort. Come on Baby, Let the Good Times Roll After you complete your audience analysis, select a central theme, just as you did with informative and persuasive speeches. But here, remember that your audience just wants to have fun. Your topic should be genial, good-natured, and suited to you: after all, if youre not having fun, how can anyone else party hearty? Your overall theme should be †¦ Optimistic. This is not the time to unburden your soul and let it all hang out. Keep it light. Uncomplicated. Dont make your audience do any heavy lifting to get your point. Instead, develop your speech around one or two points that your listeners can grasp easily. Lively. Select a theme that can be illustrated by pertinent anecdotes and humorous stories (if humor works with your comfort zone). But wait! Every entertaining speech, no matter how light and amusing, should have at least one serious point. A speech thats all sweetness and light can border on empty. Including one serious point serves as an anchor, so people feel like their getting their moneys worth, like the prize in the Cracker Jack box. The Line-Up Write Angles Open with your strongest anecdote and close with your second strongest one. Your listeners (just like your readers) will remember the beginning and end of your speech most clearly. Heres my favorite way to organize an entertaining speech: 1. Open with an anecdote. Select one that directly relates to your audience or purpose. 2. Explain the point of the anecdote. Describe how your speech will be organized around this point. 3. Beef up your theme with additional anecdotes. Remember to spread your anecdotes evenly through your speech so the really good stuff isnt all bunched in the beginning, middle, or end. 4. Conclude by restating your central point. 5. Finish with a great anecdote to ensure a memorable ending. Model Entertaining Speech #1 The following entertaining speech is by Mark Twain (1835-1910), one of the most captivating writers and speakers to ever grace a podium. Mark Twain, the pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, rocketed to fame with humorous local-color tales of the West; he became a media darling by transforming stories of his childhood into American myth. Twain was extraordinarily popular on the lecture circuit, a popular venue for public entertainment before movies, television, radio, and Madonna. Heres his speech: Author! Author! On May 13, 1940, Prime Minister Winston Churchill prepared England to battle the Nazis with these famous words: †¦ I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. You ask, what is our policy? I say it is to wage war by land, sea, and air. War with all our might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word. It is victory. Victory at all costs- Victory in spite of all terrors- Victory, however long and hard the roa d may be, for without victory there is no survival. My heart goes out in sympathy to anyone who is making his first appearance efore an audience of human beings. By a direct process of memory I go back forty years, less one month- for Im older than I look. I recall the occasion of my first appearance. San Francisco knew me then only as a reporter, and I was to make my bow to San Francisco as a lecturer. I knew that nothing short of compulsion would get me to the theater. So I bound myself by a hard-and-fast contract so that I could not escape. I got to the theater forty-five minutes before the hour set for the lecture. My knees were shaking so that I didnt know whether I could stand up. If there is an awful, horrible malady in the world, it is stage fright- and seasickness. They are a pair. I had stage fright then for the first and last time. I was only seasick once, too. I was on a little ship on which there were two hundred other passengers. I- was- sick. I was so sick that there wasnt any left for those other two hundred passengers. It was dark and lonely behind the scenes in that theater, and I peeked through the little peek holes they have in theater curtains and looked into the big auditorium. That was dark and empty, too. By and by it lighted up, and the audience began to arrive. I had a number of friends of mine, stalwart men, to sprinkle themselves throughout the audience armed with clubs. Every time I said anything they could possibly guess I intended to be funny, they were to pound those clubs on the floor. Then there was a kind lady in a box up there, also a good friend of mine, the wife of the governor. She was to watch me intently, and whenever I glanc ed toward her she was going to deliver a gubernatorial laugh that would lead the whole audience into applause. At last I began. I had the manuscript tucked under a United States flag in front of me where I could get at it in case of need. But I managed to get started without it. I walked up and down- I was young in those days and needed the exercise- and talked and talked. Right in the middle of the speech I had placed a gem. I had put in a moving, pathetic part which was to get at the hearts and souls of my hearers. When I delivered it, they did just what I hoped and expected. They sat silent and awed. I had touched them. Then I happened to glance up at the box where the governors wife was- you know what happened. Well, after the first agonizing five minutes, my stage fright left me, never to return. I know if I was going to be hanged I could get up and make a good showing, and I intend to. But I shall never forget my feelings just before the agony left me, and I got up here to thank you for helping my daughter, by your kindness, to live through her first appearance. And I want to thank you for your appreciation of her singing, which is, by the way, hereditary. Model Entertaining Speech #2 Since odds are that youll be writing and delivering more entertaining speeches than any other kind (and sweating more over them), heres another model you can use. This is an outstanding graduation speech delivered on May 21, 1998, by Jennifer L. Joyner-Lebling, the valedictorian of the graduating class at the State University of New York College of Technology at Farmingdale. Notice how Ms. Joyner-Lebling graciously credits others. Voyage of Discovery Chairman Mastroianni, Dr. Cipriani, honored members of the college council, faculty, staff, fellow classmates, family, and friends, I am honored to have been selected Valedictorian of the graduating class of 1998. I am honored to represent your commitment, dedication, and accomplishment in achieving your goal to be here today. Congratulations to all of you. As our celebrations end later today, consider tomorrow and realize that graduation is just one giant step in a very important direction. For some of us, this step has been a struggle full of obstacles, barriers, and distractions- for others it has not been that easy. However, through our struggles we have still accomplished our goal, and we are here today to celebrate our achievements. This awesome achievement we have made together, as well as the individual achievements of our team members. Like Karen Conner, the Valedictorian for the Associates degree, who was awarded the National Scholarship from the Institute of Management Accountants. And like Michael Rodriquez of the Aerospace program, the recipient of the John L. Godwin Memorial Flight Scholarship awarded by the National Air Transportation Association Foundation. Each are receiving Chancellors Awards for Student Excellence. And like Ornamental Horticulture graduates Pat Haugen, Elizabeth Boruke, Melissa Rigo, Steve Langella, J essica Bottcher, Matt McFadden, and Steve Noone, who were members of a team which took first place at the Mid-Atlantic Horticultural Field Day at Suffolk Community College. Today is the culmination of a lot of work, a lot of sweat, a lot of tears, and a lot of money †¦ but we are not finished. This is not final. It is, however, a significant milestone in our voyage of discovery. We have just emerged on a whole new level. You are all outstanding representatives of our graduating class. But none of us accomplished these feats alone. We had our families, partners, and friends- and we had the tutelage and guidance of some pretty incredible teachers. Before you leave today, be sure to thank at least one teacher from whom you have learned while at SUNY Farmingdale, and let them know that they are appreciated. Thank you Dr. Gary Brown for your enthusiasm and passion for your subjects and for your interest in and concern for your students. Thank you Dr. Richard Iversen for your never-e nding support, encouragement, and mentoring. You have both made a substantial impact on my education and on my future. Thank you Gary, Fred, Debbie, and Danielle for your guidance and friendship. French novelist Marcel Proust once said, â€Å"The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes. In receiving our diplomas today, we are receiving â€Å"new eyes. † Use what you have learned here at SUNY Farmingdale to see things in ways in which you have never noticed before. Continue to learn. Open your minds to new ideas and concepts. We leave here with the ability to make a change, the capability to make a difference, and the responsibility to make a contribution. Congratulations to you, my fellow graduates, and good luck to you as you continue on your voyage of discovery Speech To Convince Home Birth Summit Finally! Midwives from different tracks will be joined by conscientious OBs, pediatricians, nurses and academics The Home Birth Consensus Summit will be a two- to three-day multidisciplinary summit with the goal of developing areas of consensus on the provision of home birth services in the United States What if I told you that there was a way to bring your child into the world without going through the process of delivery. Well, I would be lying. However, there are alternate means of delivery and I would like to talk to you about the differences between medical intevention childbirth and natural childbirth, also known as â€Å"prepared† childbirth. I will be noting research from several books, but most importantly, I will be giving you firsthand insight into this beautiful procedure. I chose to have my daughter by natural childbirth and I believe that if you are facing an uncomplicated delivery, you should too. Situation: Too many parents rely on unnecessary medicalized childbirth. Most parents feel like they need complicated medical supervision for this procedure that has been common since the dawn of man. Many mothers do not believe they can endure the pain without medication. Many parents have not been properly exposed to the concepts of natural childbirth and have therefore never seriously considered and researched prepared childbirth as a feasible option. Problem: Medicalized childbirth presents certain health risks. Painkillers can cross the placenta and cause adverse effects on your baby. According to the Fundamentals of Human Sexuality, these risks can include irregular heartbeat, higher rates of jaundice, breathing and temperature regulation problems and reduced muscle strength. According to Choosing Waterbirth, women who receive epidural during labor are twice as likely to have a cesarean section delivery. Fundamentals of Human Sexuality expands on this, noting that the U. S. has the highest cesarean birthrate in the world. Pain is something that no mother wants to deal with, but there are natural alternatives to painkillers. Massage therapy and other relaxation techniques can help a woman manage pain. According to â€Å"Choosing Waterbirth† the body produces natural endorphines to help you feel less pain. Medical intervention is more chaotic than natural childbirth. Studies show that adrenaline has a negative impact on the delivery experience and can actually offset the natural effects of pain fighting endorphines. The process of natural childbirth often involves serene settings with calm music and dim lighting. This contrasts sharply with the hospital experience. Maternity patients in a hospital are rushed though a checklist of medical procedures that can agitate an already nervous expecting mother. According to the New Midwifery, Midwives work hard to relax the patient, adapting their normal processes to the needs and desires of the parents. This helps promote a tranquillity that you won’t find in a sterile hospital environment. And finally, there is a cost component to hospital delivery that may not be necessary for most births. Hospitals use complicated procedures to manage risks that are not always present. Impressive, but expensive, medical technology has been developed in recent years to help doctors manage complicated high-risk births. However, the basic birthing process has been around since the beginning of time and the secrets of safe, effective delivery were thought out long before these modern advancements. Natural substitutions can achieve the same results as costly medical alternatives. For example, an IV solution to keep a woman hydrated during labor will cost more than simply allowing her to drink juice, as is customary in natural childbirth. Conclusion: Now, you may be thinking that this sounds like a great procedure but it is not for you. You may think that you cannot handle the pain or that you don’t want to deal with the risk. However, consider how you will feel after delivery as you are preparing your baby book for nostalgia. Do you want your recollection to be a blur of doctors, machines, and drug induced gaps in your memories or do you want it to be a happy remembrance of a loving experience with your family? With the right preparation, this can be a wonderful way to welcome your new addition into the world. Speech To Convince Downloading Music by Tobias Varland5 SPEECH GOAL: I want to convince members of the audience that they should not download music from the Internet. Audience Adaptation Plan AUDIENCE ATTITUDE: When I asked people about their feelings about downloading, I found that most realized that it was easy to do and that it saved them time and money. There was a general belief that downloading didn’t really hurt companies that much. But most also mentioned that they realized that it was not the right thing to do, but with so many doing it, chances of being caught were pretty low. As I put these data together, I determined that although the audience was not set against downloading, they were not totally in favor of doing it either. So I put the majority in the group of undecided, or not that worried about the consequences. REASONS: I believe that the three reasons that are most likely to convince the audience are that downloading is really harmful to companies, that downloading is harmful to the computer (few people even mention this as a possible downside), and that downloading is not only illegal, but can be costly. 3-W3237 11/18/04 3:18 PM Page 262Chapter 13 Persuasive Speaking: Reasoning with Your Audience 263 SELECTING AN ORGANIZATION TO MEET AUDIENCE NEEDS: Given that the majority of the class seemed indifferent or certainly not worried about the consequences, I determined that a logical reasons approach was appropriate. I have organized my speech in such a way that it will gain momentum throughout the speech, and (hopefully) by the end of the speech the audience will have no choice but to consider my suggestions. Outline INTRODUCTION I. Over the past few weeks I’ve discovered that large numbers of people are doing something that in my mind is unbelievably stupid. II. They’re saving approximately 99 cents for doing something that could cost them as much as $150,000. III. They’re downloading copyrighted music off the Internet. THESIS STATEMENT: There are three good reasons for not downloading music off the Internet: it’s extremely harmful to recording companies and artists, it’s harmful to computers, and it’s illegal. BODY I. Downloading music is extremely harmful to recording companies and artists. A. Record sales have declined radically in the last ? ve years. 1. About 41 percent of people are downloading music for free rather than buying records, according to Fortune magazine. 2. Since 1993 average annual pro? t has dropped from 20 percent to less than 5 percent. B. People are losing jobs. 1. This year three major recording companies, BMG, EMI, and Sony Music, ? red 4,200 people as a result. II. The second reason that you should not be downloading music from the Internet is that it is extremely harmful to your computer. A. In order to download music from the Internet people must use some sort of spot check program. 1. Just one such program, His Eye, is has 65 million users. B. According to PC Magazine, by installing such a program you also install several others such as spyware. 1. These programs monitor who you send e-mails to, copies your e-mail messages, and stores them on your server. 2. They also send out spam directories that can actually take control of your computer, locking you out of your own computer, using your computer for illegal practices, and saying you are responsible for it because it is your computer. . For instance, a graduate student who is writing a thesis could have it stolen and published before he or she get a chance to print it. 3. Saving a few dollars instead of buying CDs or buying individual songs off the Internet can put people at such huge risk that it’s unbelievable that they continue to do it. III. The third and most important reason for not downloading music is that it’s illegal. A. Music in the United States is protected by copyright law. 1. When you download music off the Internet, you are committing theft. B. Recording studios have ? led numerous lawsuits. 1. According to CBC News, one company just ? led a lawsuit against four college students from New England who had all downloaded 1,500 songs apiece. (continued) 13-W3237 11/18/04 3:18 PM Page 263264 Part 3 Informative and Persuasive Speaking 2. They sought ? nes of $150,000 per song that these students had downloaded, according to the CEC News. 3. Although the company didn’t get the $150,000 per song, each student was forced to pay somewhere between $12,500 and $17,500 and was kicked out of school. C. All of this happened because they wanted to save themselves 15 bucks per CD. CONCLUSION I. So, think about it: downloading is harmful to the recording industry, it is likely to be harmful to your computer, and most of all, it could result in tremendous ? nancial loss to you because it is illegal. II. I would encourage you to consider these things before you download anything else. Consider whether or not it’s really worth it. SOURCES: CBC News (Web Site), cbc. ca/stories/2003/05/02/Consumers/record/ lawsuit 03052. Seith, Robert CWK Senior Producer, â€Å"Downloading Copyrighted Music,† http://www . connecting withkids. com/tipsheet/2003/115_mar12/music. html. Songs in the Key of Steve,† Fortune Magazine, May 19, 2003. â€Å"Spyware: It’s Lurking on Your Machine,† PC Magazine, April 22, 2003. â€Å"Study Links Burning and Downloading to Falling Music Sales,† The Write News, June 20, 2003, www. writenews. com. Sweeting, Paul â€Å"Avast ye pirates! The copyright industries, particularly the record companies, are entering dangerou s new waters. † Video Business, June 30, 2003 v23 i26 p10(1) Speech As I was talking with a lot of my friends and acquaintances, I discovered a pretty amazing phenomenon. I discovered that almost every person I talked to does something that in my mind is unbelievably stupid. Anyone know what I’m talking about? It’s a behavior that has become extremely popular: illegally downloading copyrighted music off the Internet. Today I’d like to convince you that you should not download music on your computer. Why? For at least three reasons. The ? rst reason is that it’s extremely harmful to recording companies and recording artists. I’m going to discuss some numbers with you- and I want you to think about them. The ? rst number is 61. According to The Write News, CD record sales in the United States have dropped 61 percent in just the last year. The second number is 41. Downloading has become extremely popular, according to Fortune magazine. Today, about 41 percent of people who love music are downloading it for free rather than buy records. Third is a set of numbers: 20/5. Obviously downloading is very harmful to recording companies. In 1993 recording companies made an average annual pro? t of just over 20 percent. Now they’re making less than 5 percent pro? t. That’s 20 to 5! The last number is 4,200. During this last year, three major recording companies, BMG, EMI, and Sony Music, have ? ed 4,200 people because they could not gainfully employ these people. As much as you would like to think that music is for the sake of art, people do it because they love doing it, music is a business. To get their money out of it, recording companies can’t continue to produce music, the artists have no ambition in producing music, and therefore by downloading music most people would say, I’m trying to support this music, I want to listen to it, I want to hear it - what they’re really doing is destroying an industry and insuring that there will not be as much music produced in the future. The second reason that you should not be downloading music from the Internet is that it is extremely harmful to your computer. In order to download this music from the Internet, almost everybody uses some sort of spot check program. The most popular program right now is called His Eye, a program that has as many as 65 million users. The problem is that when you install His Eye on your computer, you install numerous other programs like spyware. This spyware does things to your computer such as monitors who you send e-mails to, copies your e-mail messages and stores Analysis Tobias begins indirectly by sharing is opinions about a behavior that has become ver y popular. This indirect method is designed to get people interested in determining what he is going to talk about. Here, he states his goal and mentions that he will focus on three reasons. His ? rst reason is designed to focus on one important harm that results from downloading. Notice the presentation of information used to supp ort his point. Throughout this section he cites sources and gives a variety of statistics. Here he tries to get his audience to think about what he has said. He makes a good case showing that downloading has in fact a major effect on companies and artists. In this second reason Tobias looks at material with which the audience may be totally unfamiliar. Here he is talking about side effects that result from downloading methods. Some of these side effects don’t seem to be that importance, 13-W3237 11/18/04 3:18 PM Page 264Chapter 13 Persuasive Speaking: Reasoning with Your Audience 265 them on your server, copies your editors’ books, sends those addresses out to spam directories that can actually take control of your computer, locking you out of your own computer, use your computer for illegal practices and saying you are responsible for it since it is your computer. Let’s look at a potential consequence. Suppose you’re a graduate student and you’re writing a thesis paper. It could be stolen and published before you get a chance to print it. It seems that people are doing this to save themselves a few dollars from buying CDs or buying individual songs off the Internet and putting themselves in such huge risk that it’s unbelievable that they continue to do it. The third one, and the most important reason why this should not be done is, it’s illegal. Music in the United States is protected by copyright law. When you download this music off the Internet, you are committing theft. Recording companies recently have been on a kind of a rampage in catching people who’ve been doing this. They want to be very aggressive about it. And they just ? led a lawsuit against four college students from New England who had all downloaded 1500 songs apiece. The recording industry sought a ? ne of 150,000 dollars per song that these students had downloaded. This is according to the CEC News. The recording industry didn’t get the 150,000 dollars per song, there’s no way that these students could ever pay that much money to the recording companies. Each student was forced to pay somewhere between 12,500 and 17,500 dollars along with being kicked out of school and they were very lucky apparently to avoid at least a six-month jail sentence. All to save themselves 15 bucks per CD. I know that as a college student if somebody told me that I was responsible all of a sudden for paying a 15,000 dollar ? ne, I’m kind of out of luck- I can’t pay a 15,000 dollar ? ne. So, thinking about it, there are these three very obvious reasons that by downloading off the Internet you are costing people dollars, you’re destroying some people’s careers, sound engineers, that’s all they know, they can’t be employed anymore, because their companiesare undermined by people trying to save a few dollars. you’re putting your privacy and your computer at risk and making yourself further liable for damages done with your computer by other people. And you’re breaking the law. In a society where people- if people don’t obey the law, in one instance, what’s to keep them from not obeying in another instance. How can you break this law and condemn somebody else for breaking another law? It doesn’t make sense, the whole package of downloading copyrighted music off the Internet doesn’t make sense, and most people just don’t think about that. So I would encourage you to consider these things before you download anything else. but in fact are. He shows that allowing access enables others to take advantage of your machine. In short, he’s focusing on unnecessar y risks that may result from your use of various downloading programs. Notice how he keeps coming back to his key point: for relatively small savings, you are taking remendous risks - and you might not even be aware of the potential harms. Since the audience may not totally accept the importance of these ? rst two reasons, Tobias closes with his third, and most important reason- that some or much of what your doing is not only illegal, but also could be tremendously detrimental to you. The point is that the in dustr y is making examples of some individuals by seeing to it that they pay ? nes. So the costs are not $150,000, but would you be able to afford the 12,500 to 17,500 dollars that some have been required to pay? And, can you afford to be â€Å"kicked out of school? Again he comes back to the relatively small amount of money that people save in comparison to what can be monumental risks. Here he does a good job of reinforcing and reemphasizing the nature of the problems that are being created as a result of downloading. He ? nishes with a strong appeal to the lack of sense of continuing such behavior. A ver y good speech of reasons. Notice how he put a strong reason ?rst, a reason that might be important second, and the strongest reason third. Most of his information was well documented. And the way he presented the information really gets us to think.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Critically discuss the change management models using examples from Essay

Critically discuss the change management models using examples from different organisations to support your argument - Essay Example Change management refers to the process, techniques and tools that are used to manage employees in order to achieve a desired business result. It is about the transition from one stage to (problem stage) to another (the solution stage). A company’s change means that a company is restructuring, reengineering, keeping up with the trends in the industry or promoting cultural transformation. The 8-Step Process for Leading Change This model was proposed by John Kotter a Harvard professor who studied over a hundred companies that were going through change management ranging from well-established companies to small companies. He found that 70 percent of the change activities within companies fail (Burton, 2010: 45). This malfunction can be attributed by the companies’ failure to adopt a holistic approach towards change management. Therefore, Kotter came up with eight stages through which companies can achieve sustainable change and business improvement. Although the steps are depicted in a linear fashion, experience demonstrates that it is better to think of the steps in a continuous manner to ensure that the rapport of the change is maintained. In addition to, he identified possible setbacks that can negatively affect the change process (Czerniawska and May, 2004: 53). The steps are discussed below: Create urgency For change to happen in an entity, it is important for there to be an urgency for change that will help spark the motivation to get things done (Vogelsang et al., 2012: 18) This involves the identification of potential threats and come up with situations showing what is likely to happen in future and opportunities that could be exploited. It also involves the start of discussions to start the process of thought among the employees. Forming a powerful coalition This involves convincing people that change is required and this requires for strong leadership and support from key people within the entity (Cameron and Green, 2004: 34). Creating the vision for change When a company comes up with the decision to implement change in a n organization, there will probably be numerous ideas and solutions available (Morgan, n.d.). These concepts should be combined to form a general vision that people can easily understand and practice. Communicate the vision The events that take place after creation of the vision determine success or failure of the change management. Frequent communication of the vision is considered more effective than holding official routine meetings to communicate the vision. Empowering others to act on the vision This involves changing the systems that may hinder the change and moving any obstacles to the change process. Plan for short-term wins Success is known to be one of the most effective motivating factors. The company should evaluate the progress that has taken place within a one month period (Chapman, 2006). Criticism is also important at this point as t helps to identify the success or failure of the ch ange. Short- term goals are considered more achievable and this leaves failure less chances. Consolidate improvements and produce yet more change Kotter argues that projects fail because victory is announced too early (Cameron and Green, 2004: 34). Real change is considered comprehensive and companies should be careful as short term wins are only the beginning of the process towards long- term change. Institutionalize the new approaches or make the changes part of the corporate culture Finally, the